Posted in For Project 7 Examples

Example 3 Research, Part 3a: Overlapping of the Words: Flute, Whistle and Pipe; and the Primitive Reedless Woodwind Aerophones

For my third example, using the previously explained nonatonic scale, I decided to write a piece for the flute. This is the first part of the research about the instrument, focusing on the earliest period of its emergence.

In the broadest sense, flute is a reedless woodwind aerophone – a hollow tube (or sometimes a globe and other shapes), which produces a tone when a stream of air is projected against the sharp edge of its opening. (Fig. 1) Under this loose definition, the term flute is a general name for a very large and varied family of wind instruments, but this denotation overlaps with the terms pipe and whistle.


Fig. 1. The mechanics of reedless woodwind instruments

Pipe can refer to not only the specific instrument – the three-holed pipe played with tabor (Fig. 3), which is classified under the flute family, but it can also have a very broad meaning – any instrument in the form of tube, or any aerophone in general, with or without reed. In this sense, pipe can be categorized as the generic term, with the flute being its subcategory.


Fig. 3. The tabor pipe Continue reading “Example 3 Research, Part 3a: Overlapping of the Words: Flute, Whistle and Pipe; and the Primitive Reedless Woodwind Aerophones”

Posted in For Project 5 Examples

Example 3 Research, Part 1: Early History of Scottish Music

While trying to find musical traditions that used pentatonic scale, naturally, Scotland came up. Like in my other blog posts, I start with the obscure, early history. There aren’t many sources available, but luckily, I came across some transcripts and videos of John Purser’s “Scotland’s Music: A Radio History” and his other works.


Fig. 1. Stone circle in Easter Acquhorthies

The ancient sounds in Scotland may have started with the prehistoric megalithic stone structures, which “…are now emerging clearly, rather than speculatively, as places for music-making as well as ritual,” (Purser, 1998: 325) when speaking, chanting or making other vocal sounds may have been considered as a form of communication with the dead, as suggested by Lynch. (quoted by Mills, 2016: 65) Among these is the stone circle in Easter Acquhorthies (Fig. 1), that dates from around 3000BC. Watson and Keating (1999: 327) found interesting acoustic properties, where the recumbent setting acted comparable to the stage in a theatre, projecting sound across the monument. Though, it is not possible to demonstrate that this type of prehistoric monuments was constructed specifically for acoustic effects. Continue reading “Example 3 Research, Part 1: Early History of Scottish Music”