Continuing on from my last post, where I wrote about the early occurrences of the whole-tone scale, here, I will focus on its manifestations specifically in the music of Liszt (Fig. 1), who developed unique progressions from which the scale emerges.
Note that most of the examples given here were analyzed by Harold Adams Thompson (1974: 133-278) in his dissertation, so I cite this work as the source for a large part of this blog post.
Fig. 1. The young Franz Liszt
In his Grand Galop chromatique, the scale is achieved in a downward sequence of dominant sevenths in 6/5 inversion and root major triads, by the use of suspended tones, repeated for two octaves and a major third. (Fig. 2) Continue reading “Example 1 Research, Part 2: Whole-tone Scale in the Music of Liszt”
The previous post introduced the Middle Eastern traditions and their modes with some basic notion. Here I will concentrate on and write specifically about the Arabic system.
I will first start with the building blocks of the modes – jins or ajnas in plural, which I also mentioned in the previous part of my research. The Arabic modes, which are heptatonic, are made of two sets – upper and lower. These can be joined on the same note – conjunct, be separated – disjunct, or overlap. It is based on the lower jins that maqamat are classified into families or branches. (Gu, 2014: 105) While jins are usually defined by tetrachords, there are some reasons to use trichords.
In case of Ajam and Jiharkah, this is because the three of their notes may be enough to convey the mood of maqam. Both of these are similar to the first three notes of the Western major scale. (Fig. 1)
Fig. 1. Ajam and Jiharkah trichords Continue reading “Example 3 Research, Part 2: Arabic Maqamat”